Romain Pirracchio, MD, PhD

Chief, ZSFG Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
Duceau B, Picard M, Pirracchio R, Wanquet A, Pène F, Merceron S, Mokart D, Moreau AS, Lengliné E, Canet E, Lemiale V, Mariotte E, Azoulay E, Zafrani L. Neutropenic Enterocolitis in Critically Ill Patients: Spectrum of the Disease and Risk of Invasive Fungal Disease. Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 07.
Pirracchio R, Gropper MA. Heterogeneity in Intensive Care: Low Severity Does Not Mean Low Risk! Anesthesiology. 2019 Feb; 130(2):190-191.
Barthélémy R, Neuschwander A, Dramé F, Redouté M, Ditchi D, Stern J, Mebazaa A, Pirracchio R, Chousterman BG. Monitoring haemodynamic response to fluid-challenge in ICU: comparison of pressure recording analytical method and oesophageal Doppler: A prospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2019 Feb; 36(2):135-143.
Fessler J, Thes J, Pirracchio R, Godement M, Sage E, Roux A, Parquin F, Cerf C, Fischler M, Le Guen M. Prognostic value of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio determined at the end-surgery stage of a double-lung transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2019 Jan 22; e13484.
Cinotti R, Bruder N, Srairi M, Paugam-Burtz C, Beloeil H, Pottecher J, Geeraerts T, Atthar V, Guéguen A, Triglia T, Josserand J, Vigouroux D, Viquesnel S, Lakhal K, Galliez M, Blanloeil Y, Le Thuaut A, Feuillet F, Rozec B, Asehnoune K, Bonnet MP, Le Guen M, Martinez V, Pirracchio R, Yavchitz A. Prediction Score for Postoperative Neurologic Complications after Brain Tumor Craniotomy: A Multicenter Observational Study. Anesthesiology. 2018 Dec; 129(6):1111-1120.
Fessler J, Godement M, Pirracchio R, Marandon JY, Thes J, Sage E, Roux A, Parquin F, Cerf C, Fischler M, Le Guen M. Inhaled nitric oxide dependency at the end of double-lung transplantation: a boosted propensity score cohort analysis. Transpl Int. 2018 Nov 17.
Léopold V, Gayat E, Pirracchio R, Spinar J, Parenica J, Tarvasmäki T, Lassus J, Harjola VP, Champion S, Zannad F, Valente S, Urban P, Chua HR, Bellomo R, Popovic B, Ouweneel DM, Henriques JPS, Simonis G, Lévy B, Kimmoun A, Gaudard P, Basir MB, Markota A, Adler C, Reuter H, Mebazaa A, Chouihed T. Correction to: Epinephrine and short-term survival in cardiogenic shock: an individual data meta-analysis of 2583 patients. Intensive Care Med. 2018 11; 44(11):2022-2023.
Grolleau F, Collins GS, Smarandache A, Pirracchio R, Gakuba C, Boutron I, Busse JW, Devereaux PJ, Le Manach Y. The Fragility and Reliability of Conclusions of Anesthesia and Critical Care Randomized Trials With Statistically Significant Findings: A Systematic Review. Crit Care Med. 2018 Oct 31.
Pirracchio R, Cohen MJ, Malenica I, Cohen J, Chambaz A, Cannesson M, Lee C, Resche-Rigon M, Hubbard A. Big data and targeted machine learning in action to assist medical decision in the ICU. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018 Oct 16.
Lefrant JY, Lorne E, Asehnoune K, Ausset S, Beaulieu P, Biais M, Brichant JF, Charbit B, Constantin JM, Cuvillon P, Dadure C, Dahmani S, David JS, Fuchs-Buder T, Geeraerts T, Godier A, Hanouz JL, Joannes-Boyau O, Kipnis E, Laudenbach V, Le Guen M, Legrand M, Lescot T, Marret E, Mongardon N, Ouattara A, Pierre S, Roberts J, Schneider A, Tourtier JP, Tran L, Pirracchio R, Capdevila X. Determining the editorial policy of Anaesthesia Critical Care and Pain Medicine (ACCPM). Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018 08; 37(4):299-301.
Lamhaut L, Qasim Z, Hutin A, Dagron C, Orsini JP, Haegel A, Perkins Z, Pirracchio R, Carli P. First description of successful use of zone 1 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in the prehospital setting. Resuscitation. 2018 Dec; 133:e1-e2.
Aissaoui N, Jouan J, Gourjault M, Diebold B, Ortuno S, Hamdan A, Latremouille C, Pirracchio R, Morshuis M. Understanding Left Ventricular Assist Devices. Blood Purif. 2018; 46(4):292-300.
Ngwenya LB, Gardner RC, Yue JK, Burke JF, Ferguson AR, Huang MC, Winkler EA, Pirracchio R, Satris GG, Yuh EL, Mukherjee P, Valadka AB, Okonkwo DO, Manley GT. Concordance of common data elements for assessment of subjective cognitive complaints after mild-traumatic brain injury: a TRACK-TBI Pilot Study. Brain Inj. 2018; 32(9):1071-1078.
Léopold V, Gayat E, Pirracchio R, Spinar J, Parenica J, Tarvasmäki T, Lassus J, Harjola VP, Champion S, Zannad F, Valente S, Urban P, Chua HR, Bellomo R, Popovic B, Ouweneel DM, Henriques JPS, Simonis G, Lévy B, Kimmoun A, Gaudard P, Basir MB, Markota A, Adler C, Reuter H, Mebazaa A, Chouihed T. Epinephrine and short-term survival in cardiogenic shock: an individual data meta-analysis of 2583 patients. Intensive Care Med. 2018 06; 44(6):847-856.
Gauss T, Balandraud P, Frandon J, Abba J, Ageron FX, Albaladejo P, Arvieux C, Barbois S, Bijok B, Bobbia X, Charbit J, Cook F, David JS, Maurice GS, Duranteau J, Garrigue D, Gay E, Geeraerts T, Ghelfi J, Hamada S, Harrois A, Kobeiter H, Leone M, Levrat A, Mirek S, Nadji A, Paugam-Burtz C, Payen JF, Perbet S, Pirracchio R, Plenier I, Pottecher J, Rigal S, Riou B, Savary D, Secheresse T, Tazarourte K, Thony F, Tonetti J, Tresallet C, Wey PF, Picard J, Bouzat P. Strategic proposal for a national trauma system in France. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018 May 29.
Hamada SR, Rosa A, Gauss T, Desclefs JP, Raux M, Harrois A, Follin A, Cook F, Boutonnet M, Attias A, Ausset S, Boutonnet M, Dhonneur G, Duranteau J, Langeron O, Paugam-Burtz C, Pirracchio R, de St Maurice G, Vigué B, Rouquette A, Duranteau J. Development and validation of a pre-hospital "Red Flag" alert for activation of intra-hospital haemorrhage control response in blunt trauma. Crit Care. 2018 May 05; 22(1):113.
Asehnoune K, Lasocki S, Seguin P, Geeraerts T, Perrigault PF, Dahyot-Fizelier C, Paugam Burtz C, Cook F, Demeure Dit Latte D, Cinotti R, Mahe PJ, Fortuit C, Pirracchio R, Feuillet F, Sébille V, Roquilly A. Association between continuous hyperosmolar therapy and survival in patients with traumatic brain injury - a multicentre prospective cohort study and systematic review. Crit Care. 2017 12 28; 21(1):328.
Duceau B, Alsac JM, Bellenfant F, Mailloux A, Chhor V, Lagrange A, El Batti S, Cholley B, Achouh P, Pirracchio R. Improved Survival After Implementation of a Large-Scale Regional Dedicated Aortic Network. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Dec 19; 70(24):3068-3069.
Le Gall A, Follin A, Cholley B, Mantz J, Aissaoui N, Pirracchio R. Veno-arterial-ECMO in the intensive care unit: From technical aspects to clinical practice. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018 Jun; 37(3):259-268.
Dépret F, Dunyach C, De Tymowski C, Chaussard M, Bataille A, Ferry A, Moreno N, Cupaciu A, Soussi S, Benyamina M, Mebazaa A, Serror K, Chaouat M, Garnier JP, Pirracchio R, Legrand M. Undetectable haptoglobin is associated with major adverse kidney events in critically ill burn patients. Crit Care. 2017 Sep 26; 21(1):245.
Cholley B, Caruba T, Grosjean S, Amour J, Ouattara A, Villacorta J, Miguet B, Guinet P, Lévy F, Squara P, Aït Hamou N, Carillion A, Boyer J, Boughenou MF, Rosier S, Robin E, Radutoiu M, Durand M, Guidon C, Desebbe O, Charles-Nelson A, Menasché P, Rozec B, Girard C, Fellahi JL, Pirracchio R, Chatellier G. Effect of Levosimendan on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome in Patients With Low Ejection Fraction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Cardiopulmonary Bypass: The LICORN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 08 08; 318(6):548-556.
Yue JK, Ngwenya LB, Upadhyayula PS, Deng H, Winkler EA, Burke JF, Lee YM, Robinson CK, Ferguson AR, Lingsma HF, Cnossen MC, Pirracchio R, Korley FK, Vassar MJ, Yuh EL, Mukherjee P, Gordon WA, Valadka AB, Okonkwo DO, Manley GT. Emergency department blood alcohol level associates with injury factors and six-month outcome after uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Nov; 45:293-298.
Yue JK, Burke JF, Upadhyayula PS, Winkler EA, Deng H, Robinson CK, Pirracchio R, Suen CG, Sharma S, Ferguson AR, Ngwenya LB, Stein MB, Manley GT, Tarapore PE. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treating Neurocognitive and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: An Evaluation of Current Evidence. Brain Sci. 2017 Jul 25; 7(8).
Chhor V, Follin A, Joachim J, Champigneulle B, Chatelon J, Favé G, Neuschwander A, Mantz J, Pirracchio R. Risk factors of percutaneous cannulation failure by intensivists for veno-arterial extracorporeal life support for refractory cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med. 2017 11; 43(11):1742-1744.
Pirracchio R, Carone M. The Balance Super Learner: A robust adaptation of the Super Learner to improve estimation of the average treatment effect in the treated based on propensity score matching. Stat Methods Med Res. 2018 Aug; 27(8):2504-2518.
Juillard C, Cooperman L, Allen I, Pirracchio R, Henderson T, Marquez R, Orellana J, Texada M, Dicker RA. A decade of hospital-based violence intervention: Benefits and shortcomings. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 12; 81(6):1156-1161.
Chatelon J, Bourillon C, Darmon H, Carbonne H, Chhor V, Follin A, Cholley B, Guinvarc'h A, Mantz J, Pirracchio R. Feasibility and Predictive Value of Ultrasound Assessment of the Gastric Residual Volume in Surgical Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study. Crit Care Med. 2016 12; 44(12):e1255-e1257.
Caruana E, Chevret S, Pirracchio R. Effect of cricoid pressure on laryngeal view during prehospital tracheal intubation: a propensity-based analysis. Emerg Med J. 2017 Mar; 34(3):132-137.
Radke OC, Schneider T, Braune A, Pirracchio R, Fischer F, Koch T. Comparison of distribution of lung aeration measured with EIT and CT in spontaneously breathing, awake patients1. Biomed Mater Eng. 2016 Sep 28; 27(4):315-325.
Chousterman BG, Pirracchio R, Guidet B, Aegerter P, Mentec H. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0162552.
Pirracchio R, Yue JK, Manley GT, van der Laan MJ, Hubbard AE. Collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation for variable importance measure: Illustration for functional outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injuries. Stat Methods Med Res. 2018 Jan; 27(1):286-297.
Haarbauer-Krupa J, Taylor CA, Yue JK, Winkler EA, Pirracchio R, Cooper SR, Burke JF, Stein MB, Manley GT. Screening for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Civilian Emergency Department Population with Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2017 01 01; 34(1):50-58.
Follin A, Jacqmin S, Chhor V, Bellenfant F, Robin S, Guinvarc'h A, Thomas F, Loeb T, Mantz J, Pirracchio R. Tree-based algorithm for prehospital triage of polytrauma patients. Injury. 2016 Jul; 47(7):1555-61.
Maze M, Pirracchio R. Will Xenon Be a Valuable Addition in Perioperative and Critical Care Settings? Anesth Analg. 2016 Mar; 122(3):593-6.
Caruana E, Chevret S, Resche-Rigon M, Pirracchio R. A new weighted balance measure helped to select the variables to be included in a propensity score model. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Dec; 68(12):1415-22.e2.
Caruana E, Duchateau FX, Cornaglia C, Devaud ML, Pirracchio R. Tracheal intubation related complications in the prehospital setting. Emerg Med J. 2015 Nov; 32(11):882-7.
Pasero D, Koeltz A, Placido R, Fontes Lima M, Haun O, Rienzo M, Marrache D, Pirracchio R, Safran D, Cholley B. Improving ultrasonic measurement of diaphragmatic excursion after cardiac surgery using the anatomical M-mode: a randomized crossover study. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Apr; 41(4):650-6.
Pirracchio R, Petersen ML, van der Laan M. Improving propensity score estimators' robustness to model misspecification using super learner. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 15; 181(2):108-19.
Neuschwander A, Couffin S, Huynh TM, Cholley B, de Villechenon GP, Achouh P, Fabiani JN, Safran D, Pirracchio R. Determinants of Transcutaneous Ear Lobe CO2 Tension (PtCO2) at 37°C During On-Pump Cardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015 Aug; 29(4):917-23.
Champigneulle B, Bellenfant-Zegdi F, Follin A, Lebard C, Guinvarch A, Thomas F, Pirracchio R, Journois D. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for refractory cardiac arrest after drowning: an 11-year experience. Resuscitation. 2015 Mar; 88:126-31.
Pirracchio R, Petersen ML, Carone M, Rigon MR, Chevret S, van der Laan MJ. Mortality prediction in intensive care units with the Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA): a population-based study. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jan; 3(1):42-52.
Pirracchio R, Journois D. Hypothermia for bacterial meningitis. JAMA. 2014 Apr 02; 311(13):1357.
Pirracchio R, Ranzani OT. Recalibrating our prediction models in the ICU: time to move from the abacus to the computer. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Mar; 40(3):438-41.
Pirracchio R, Carone M, Rigon MR, Caruana E, Mebazaa A, Chevret S. Propensity score estimators for the average treatment effect and the average treatment effect on the treated may yield very different estimates. Stat Methods Med Res. 2016 10; 25(5):1938-1954.
Legrand M, Pirracchio R, Rosa A, Petersen ML, Van der Laan M, Fabiani JN, Fernandez-gerlinger MP, Podglajen I, Safran D, Cholley B, Mainardi JL. Incidence, risk factors and prediction of post-operative acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery for active infective endocarditis: an observational study. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 04; 17(5):R220.
Pirracchio R, Mebazaa A. Reply to short-term mortality and CPAP in acute cardiac pulmonary edema: how and what can we be expecting? J Card Fail. 2013 Oct; 19(10):723-4.
Pirracchio R, Resche-Rigon M, Chevret S, Journois D. Do simple screening statistical tools help to detect reporting bias? Ann Intensive Care. 2013 Sep 02; 3(1):29.
Pirracchio R, Parenica J, Resche Rigon M, Chevret S, Spinar J, Jarkovsky J, Zannad F, Alla F, Mebazaa A. The effectiveness of inodilators in reducing short term mortality among patient with severe cardiogenic shock: a propensity-based analysis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71659.
Nebout S, Wagner M, Saint-Maurice JP, Houdart E, Madadaki C, Borsali A, Pirracchio R. [Usefulness of Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring for early detection of cerebral hypoperfusions]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013 Oct; 32(10):653-8.
Pirracchio R, Resche-Rigon M, Chevret S, Journois D. Simple screening statistical tools to detect reporting bias: when should we ask for raw data? Crit Care. 2013 May 07; 17(3):142.
Pirracchio R, Resche Rigon M, Mebazaa A, Zannad F, Alla F, Chevret S. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may not reduce short-term mortality in cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a propensity-based analysis. J Card Fail. 2013 Feb; 19(2):108-16.
Resche-Rigon M, Pirracchio R, Robin M, De Latour RP, Sibon D, Ades L, Ribaud P, Fermand JP, Thieblemont C, Socié G, Chevret S. Estimating the treatment effect from non-randomized studies: The example of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in hematological diseases. BMC Blood Disord. 2012 Aug 16; 12:10.
Pirracchio R, Resche-Rigon M, Chevret S. Evaluation of the propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios in case of small sample size. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012 May 30; 12:70.
Sprung CL, Artigas A, Kesecioglu J, Pezzi A, Wiis J, Pirracchio R, Baras M, Edbrooke DL, Pesenti A, Bakker J, Hargreaves C, Gurman G, Cohen SL, Lippert A, Payen D, Corbella D, Iapichino G. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units. Part II: intensive care benefit for the elderly. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan; 40(1):132-8.
Sprung CL, Baras M, Iapichino G, Kesecioglu J, Lippert A, Hargreaves C, Pezzi A, Pirracchio R, Edbrooke DL, Pesenti A, Bakker J, Gurman G, Cohen SL, Wiis J, Payen D, Artigas A. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units: part I--European Intensive Care Admission Triage Scores. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan; 40(1):125-31.
Pirracchio R, Gallula S, Broche C, Ogereau C, Payen D. [Out-of-hospital assessment of elderly patients' preference for ICU care]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2012 Feb; 31(2):114-9.
Chousterman B, Pirracchio R. [From iatrogenesis to medical errors: review of the literature and analytical approach]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2011 Dec; 30(12):914-22.
Pirracchio R, Sprung C, Payen D, Chevret S. Benefits of ICU admission in critically ill patients: whether instrumental variable methods or propensity scores should be used. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Sep 21; 11:132.
Nebout S, Pirracchio R. Should We Monitor ScVO(2) in Critically Ill Patients? Cardiol Res Pract. 2012; 2012:370697.
Pirracchio R, Sprung CL, Payen D, Chevret S. Utility of time-dependent inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to analyze observational cohorts in the intensive care unit. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Dec; 64(12):1373-82.
Pirracchio R, Legrand M, Rigon MR, Mateo J, Lukaszewicz AC, Mebazaa A, Raskine L, Le Pors MJ, Payen D. Arterial catheter-related bloodstream infections: results of an 8-year survey in a surgical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun; 39(6):1372-6.
Edbrooke DL, Minelli C, Mills GH, Iapichino G, Pezzi A, Corbella D, Jacobs P, Lippert A, Wiis J, Pesenti A, Patroniti N, Pirracchio R, Payen D, Gurman G, Bakker J, Kesecioglu J, Hargreaves C, Cohen SL, Baras M, Artigas A, Sprung CL. Implications of ICU triage decisions on patient mortality: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Crit Care. 2011; 15(1):R56.
Chibbaro S, Di Rocco F, Makiese O, Mirone G, Marsella M, Lukaszewicz AC, Vicaut E, Turner B, Hamdi S, Spiriev T, Di Emidio P, Pirracchio R, Payen D, George B, Bresson D. Neurosurgery and elderly: analysis through the years. Neurosurg Rev. 2010 Apr; 34(2):229-34.
Pirracchio R, Resche-Rigon M, Bresson D, Basta B, Welschbillig S, Heyer L, Kechiche H, Madadaki C, Chollet A, Lukaszewicz AC, Mebazaa A, George B, Payen D. One-year outcome after neurosurgery for intracranial tumor in elderly patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010 Oct; 22(4):342-6.
Gayat E, Pirracchio R, Resche-Rigon M, Mebazaa A, Mary JY, Porcher R. Propensity scores in intensive care and anaesthesiology literature: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Dec; 36(12):1993-2003.
Legrand M, Mik EG, Balestra GM, Lutter R, Pirracchio R, Payen D, Ince C. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jan; 112(1):119-27.
Heyer L, Mebazaa A, Gayat E, Resche-Rigon M, Rabuel C, Rezlan E, Lukascewicz AC, Madadaki C, Pirracchio R, Schurando P, Morel O, Fargeaudou Y, Payen D. Cardiac troponin and skeletal muscle oxygenation in severe post-partum haemorrhage. Crit Care. 2009; 13 Suppl 5:S8.
Lukaszewicz AC, Grienay M, Resche-Rigon M, Pirracchio R, Faivre V, Boval B, Payen D. Monocytic HLA-DR expression in intensive care patients: interest for prognosis and secondary infection prediction. Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct; 37(10):2746-52.
Pirracchio R, Salem R, Mebazaa A. Use of B-type natriuretic peptide in critically ill patients. Biomark Med. 2009 Oct; 3(5):541-7.
Pirracchio R, Mateo J, Raskine L, Rigon MR, Lukaszewicz AC, Mebazaa A, Hammitouche Y, Sanson-Le Pors MJ, Payen D. Can bacteriological upper airway samples obtained at intensive care unit admission guide empiric antibiotherapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia? Crit Care Med. 2009 Sep; 37(9):2559-63.
Vergez M, Pirracchio R, Mateo J, Payen D, Cholley B. Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with multiple trauma. Resuscitation. 2009 Sep; 80(9):1074-7.
Pirracchio R, Logeart D, Noveanu M, Mebazaa A, Mueller C. The use of natriuretic peptides in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008 Oct; 14(5):536-42.
Pirracchio R, Deye N, Lukaszewicz AC, Mebazaa A, Cholley B, Matéo J, Mégarbane B, Launay JM, Peynet J, Baud F, Payen D. Impaired plasma B-type natriuretic peptide clearance in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep; 36(9):2542-6.
Plaisance P, Pirracchio R, Berton C, Vicaut E, Payen D. A randomized study of out-of-hospital continuous positive airway pressure for acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: physiological and clinical effects. Eur Heart J. 2007 Dec; 28(23):2895-901.
Pirracchio R, Payen D, Plaisance P. The impedance threshold valve for adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a review of the literature. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2007 Jun; 13(3):280-6.
Pirracchio R, Cholley B, De Hert S, Solal AC, Mebazaa A. Diastolic heart failure in anaesthesia and critical care. Br J Anaesth. 2007 Jun; 98(6):707-21.
Liu N, Chazot T, Trillat B, Pirracchio R, Law-Koune JD, Barvais L, Fischler M. Feasibility of closed-loop titration of propofol guided by the Bispectral Index for general anaesthesia induction: a prospective randomized study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2006 Jun; 23(6):465-9.