Philip Bickler, MD, PhD

Chief of Neuroanesthesia
Director, Hypoxia Research Laboratory
Zhou R, Bickler P. Interaction of Isoflurane, Tumor Necrosis Factor-a and ß-Amyloid on Long-term Potentiation in Rat Hippocampal Slices. Anesth Analg. 2017 Feb; 124(2):582-587.
Bickler P, Feiner J, Rollins M, Meng L. Tissue Oximetry and Clinical Outcomes. Anesth Analg. 2017 Jan; 124(1):72-82.
Bickler PE, Cannesson M, Shelley KH. Trends and Challenges in Clinical Monitoring: Papers From the 2015 IAMPOV Symposium. Anesth Analg. 2017 Jan; 124(1):2-3.
Lewin M, Samuel S, Merkel J, Bickler P. Varespladib (LY315920) Appears to Be a Potent, Broad-Spectrum, Inhibitor of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 and a Possible Pre-Referral Treatment for Envenomation. Toxins (Basel). 2016; 8(9).
Bickler PE, Feiner JR, Lipnick MS, Batchelder P, MacLeod DB, Severinghaus JW. Effects of Acute, Profound Hypoxia on Healthy Humans: Implications for Safety of Tests Evaluating Pulse Oximetry or Tissue Oximetry Performance. Anesth Analg. 2016 Aug 12.
Bickler PE. Enough Information to Evaluate Clinical Monitors? Anesth Analg. 2016 Jul; 123(1):254-5.
Kulcke A, Feiner J, Menn I, Holmer A, Hayoz J, Bickler P. The Accuracy of Pulse Spectroscopy for Detecting Hypoxemia and Coexisting Methemoglobin or Carboxyhemoglobin. Anesth Analg. 2016 Jun; 122(6):1856-65.
Lipnick MS, Feiner JR, Au P, Bernstein M, Bickler PE. The Accuracy of 6 Inexpensive Pulse Oximeters Not Cleared by the Food and Drug Administration: The Possible Global Public Health Implications. Anesth Analg. 2016 Apr 13.
Bickler PE, Clark JP, Gabatto P, Brosnan H. Hypoxic preconditioning and cell death from oxygen/glucose deprivation co-opt a subset of the unfolded protein response in hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience. 2015 Dec 3; 310:306-21.
Lewin MR, Samuel SP, Wexler DS, Bickler P, Vaiyapuri S, Mensh BD. Early Treatment with Intranasal Neostigmine Reduces Mortality in a Mouse Model of Naja naja (Indian Cobra) Envenomation. J Trop Med. 2014; 2014:131835.
Bickler PE, Feiner JR, Rollins MD. Factors affecting the performance of 5 cerebral oximeters during hypoxia in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg. 2013 Oct; 117(4):813-23.
Dubowitz G, Breyer K, Lipnick M, Sall JW, Feiner J, Ikeda K, MacLeod DB, Bickler PE. Accuracy of the Lifebox pulse oximeter during hypoxia in healthy volunteers. Anaesthesia. 2013 Dec; 68(12):1220-3.
Brosnan H, Bickler PE. Xenon neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal slice cultures is similar to isoflurane and sevoflurane. Anesthesiology. 2013 Aug; 119(2):335-44.
Lewin MR, Bickler P, Heier T, Feiner J, Montauk L, Mensh B. Reversal of experimental paralysis in a human by intranasal neostigmine aerosol suggests a novel approach to the early treatment of neurotoxic envenomation. Clin Case Rep. 2013 Oct; 1(1):7-15.
Feiner JR, Rollins MD, Sall JW, Eilers H, Au P, Bickler PE. Accuracy of carboxyhemoglobin detection by pulse CO-oximetry during hypoxemia. Anesth Analg. 2013 Oct; 117(4):847-58.
Sall JW, Stratmann G, Leong J, Woodward E, Bickler PE. Propofol at clinically relevant concentrations increases neuronal differentiation but is not toxic to hippocampal neural precursor cells in vitro. Anesthesiology. 2012 Nov; 117(5):1080-90.
Bickler PE, Warren DE, Clark JP, Gabatto P, Gregersen M, Brosnan H. Anesthetic protection of neurons injured by hypothermia and rewarming: roles of intracellular Ca2+ and excitotoxicity. Anesthesiology. 2012 Aug; 117(2):280-92.
Shih J, May LD, Gonzalez HE, Lee EW, Alvi RS, Sall JW, Rau V, Bickler PE, Lalchandani GR, Yusupova M, Woodward E, Kang H, Wilk AJ, Carlston CM, Mendoza MV, Guggenheim JN, Schaefer M, Rowe AM, Stratmann G. Delayed environmental enrichment reverses sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in rats. Anesthesiology. 2012 Mar; 116(3):586-602.
Pianezza A, Salces y Nedeo A, Chaynes P, Bickler PE, Minville V. The emergence level of the musculocutaneous nerve from the brachial plexus: implications for infraclavicular nerve blocks. Anesth Analg. 2012 May; 114(5):1131-3.
Warren DE, Bickler PE, Clark JP, Gregersen M, Brosnan H, McKleroy W, Gabatto P. Hypothermia and rewarming injury in hippocampal neurons involve intracellular Ca2+ and glutamate excitotoxicity. Neuroscience. 2012 Apr 5; 207:316-25.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS, Gray JJ. Hypoxic preconditioning failure in aging hippocampal neurons: impaired gene expression and rescue with intracellular calcium chelation. J Neurosci Res. 2010 Dec; 88(16):3520-9.
Feiner JR, Bickler PE. Improved accuracy of methemoglobin detection by pulse CO-oximetry during hypoxia. Anesth Analg. 2010 Nov; 111(5):1160-7.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS. Enhanced hypoxic preconditioning by isoflurane: signaling gene expression and requirement of intracellular Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate receptors. Brain Res. 2010 Jun 22; 1340:86-95.
Rubinsky L, Raichman N, Lavee J, Frenk H, Ben-Jacob E, Bickler PE. Antifreeze protein suppresses spontaneous neural activity and protects neurons from hypothermia/re-warming injury. Neurosci Res. 2010 Jul; 67(3):256-9.
Stratmann G, Sall JW, Bell JS, Alvi RS, May Ld, Ku B, Dowlatshahi M, Dai R, Bickler PE, Russell I, Lee MT, Hrubos MW, Chiu C. Isoflurane does not affect brain cell death, hippocampal neurogenesis, or long-term neurocognitive outcome in aged rats. Anesthesiology. 2010 Feb; 112(2):305-15.
Osredkar D, Sall JW, Bickler PE, Ferriero DM. Erythropoietin promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in in vitro models of neonatal stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2010 May; 38(2):259-65.
Feiner JR, Bickler PE, Mannheimer PD. Accuracy of methemoglobin detection by pulse CO-oximetry during hypoxia. Anesth Analg. 2010 Jul; 111(1):143-8.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS. Expression of signal transduction genes differs after hypoxic or isoflurane preconditioning of rat hippocampal slice cultures. Anesthesiology. 2009 Aug; 111(2):258-66.
Baranov D, Bickler PE, Crosby GJ, Culley DJ, Eckenhoff MF, Eckenhoff RG, Hogan KJ, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Palotás A, Perouansky M, Planel E, Silverstein JH, Wei H, Whittington RA, Xie Z, Zuo Z. Consensus statement: First International Workshop on Anesthetics and Alzheimer's disease. Anesth Analg. 2009 May; 108(5):1627-30.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS, Gray J, McKleroy W. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors and NAD(P)H mediate Ca2+ signaling required for hypoxic preconditioning of hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience. 2009 Apr 21; 160(1):51-60.
Christian SL, Ross AP, Zhao HW, Kristenson HJ, Zhan X, Rasley BT, Bickler PE, Drew KL. Arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) hippocampal neurons tolerate prolonged oxygen-glucose deprivation and maintain baseline ERK1/2 and JNK activation despite drastic ATP loss. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Jul; 28(7):1307-19.
Feiner JR, Severinghaus JW, Bickler PE. Dark skin decreases the accuracy of pulse oximeters at low oxygen saturation: the effects of oximeter probe type and gender. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec; 105(6 Suppl):S18-23, tables of contents.
Bickler PE, Buck LT. Hypoxia tolerance in reptiles, amphibians, and fishes: life with variable oxygen availability. Annu Rev Physiol. 2007; 69:145-70.
Bickler P, Brandes J, Lee M, Bozic K, Chesbro B, Claassen J. Bleeding complications from femoral and sciatic nerve catheters in patients receiving low molecular weight heparin. Anesth Analg. 2006 Oct; 103(4):1036-7.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS. The inhaled anesthetic, isoflurane, enhances Ca2+-dependent survival signaling in cortical neurons and modulates MAP kinases, apoptosis proteins and transcription factors during hypoxia. Anesth Analg. 2006 Aug; 103(2):419-29, table of contents.
Zhan X, Fahlman CS, Bickler PE. Isoflurane neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slices decreases with aging: changes in intracellular Ca2+ regulation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. Anesthesiology. 2006 May; 104(5):995-1003.
Platts-Mills TF, Lewin MR, Wells J, Bickler P. Improvised cricothyrotomy provides reliable airway access in an unembalmed human cadaver model. Wilderness Environ Med. 2006; 17(2):81-6.
Bickler PE, Zhan X, Fahlman CS. Isoflurane preconditions hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation: role of intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep; 103(3):532-9.
Bickler PE, Feiner JR, Severinghaus JW. Effects of skin pigmentation on pulse oximeter accuracy at low saturation. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr; 102(4):715-9.
Gray JJ, Bickler PE, Fahlman CS, Zhan X, Schuyler JA. Isoflurane neuroprotection in hypoxic hippocampal slice cultures involves increases in intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Anesthesiology. 2005 Mar; 102(3):606-15.
Hedrick MS, Fahlman CS, Bickler PE. Intracellular calcium and survival of tadpole forebrain cells in anoxia. J Exp Biol. 2005 Feb; 208(Pt 4):681-6.
Liu C, Cotten JF, Schuyler JA, Fahlman CS, Au JD, Bickler PE, Yost CS. Protective effects of TASK-3 (KCNK9) and related 2P K channels during cellular stress. Brain Res. 2005 Jan 21; 1031(2):164-73.
Feiner JR, Bickler PE, Estrada S, Donohoe PH, Fahlman CS, Schuyler JA. Mild hypothermia, but not propofol, is neuroprotective in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jan; 100(1):215-25.
Bickler PE. Clinical perspectives: neuroprotection lessons from hypoxia-tolerant organisms. J Exp Biol. 2004 Aug; 207(Pt 18):3243-9.
Paige M, Bickler PE. Falsely low pulse oximetry values in patients receiving docetaxel (Taxotere). Anesth Analg. 2004 Aug; 99(2):622-3.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS, Ferriero DM. Hypoxia increases calcium flux through cortical neuron glutamate receptors via protein kinase C. J Neurochem. 2004 Feb; 88(4):878-84.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS. Moderate increases in intracellular calcium activate neuroprotective signals in hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience. 2004; 127(3):673-83.
Bickler PE, Warner DS, Stratmann G, Schuyler JA. gamma-Aminobutyric acid-A receptors contribute to isoflurane neuroprotection in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Anesth Analg. 2003 Aug; 97(2):564-71, table of contents.
Bickler PE, Fahlman CS, Taylor DM. Oxygen sensitivity of NMDA receptors: relationship to NR2 subunit composition and hypoxia tolerance of neonatal neurons. Neuroscience. 2003; 118(1):25-35.
Fahlman CS, Bickler PE, Sullivan B, Gregory GA. Activation of the neuroprotective ERK signaling pathway by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate during hypoxia involves intracellular Ca2+ and phospholipase C. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 20; 958(1):43-51.
Bickler PE, Donohoe PH. Adaptive responses of vertebrate neurons to hypoxia. J Exp Biol. 2002 Dec; 205(Pt 23):3579-86.
Bickler PE, Donohoe PH, Buck LT. Molecular adaptations for survival during anoxia: lessons from lower vertebrates. Neuroscientist. 2002 Jun; 8(3):234-42.
Serkova N, Donohoe P, Gottschalk S, Hainz C, Niemann CU, Bickler PE, Litt L, Benet LZ, Leibfritz D, Christians U. Comparison of the effects of cyclosporin a on the metabolism of perfused rat brain slices during normoxia and hypoxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Mar; 22(3):342-52.
Sullivan BL, Leu D, Taylor DM, Fahlman CS, Bickler PE. Isoflurane prevents delayed cell death in an organotypic slice culture model of cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jan; 96(1):189-95.
Donohoe PH, Fahlman CS, Bickler PE, Vexler ZS, Gregory GA. Neuroprotection and intracellular Ca2+ modulation with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate during in vitro hypoxia-ischemia involves phospholipase C-dependent signaling. Brain Res. 2001 Nov 2; 917(2):158-66.
Eilers H, Philip LA, Bickler PE, McKay WR, Schumacher MA. The reversal of fentanyl-induced tolerance by administration of "small-dose" ketamine. Anesth Analg. 2001 Jul; 93(1):213-4.
Liniger R, Popovic R, Sullivan B, Gregory G, Bickler PE. Effects of neuroprotective cocktails on hippocampal neuron death in an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2001 Jan; 13(1):19-25.
Bickler PE, Donohoe PH, Buck LT. Hypoxia-induced silencing of NMDA receptors in turtle neurons. J Neurosci. 2000 May 15; 20(10):3522-8.
Popovic R, Liniger R, Bickler PE. Anesthetics and mild hypothermia similarly prevent hippocampal neuron death in an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology. 2000 May; 92(5):1343-9.
Taylor DM, Eger EI, Bickler PE. Halothane, but not the nonimmobilizers perfluoropentane and 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane, depresses synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats. Anesth Analg. 1999 Oct; 89(4):1040-5.
Eilers H, Kindler CH, Bickler PE. Different effects of volatile anesthetics and polyhalogenated alkanes on depolarization-evoked glutamate release in rat cortical brain slices. Anesth Analg. 1999 May; 88(5):1168-74.
Kindler CH, Eilers H, Donohoe P, Ozer S, Bickler PE. Volatile anesthetics increase intracellular calcium in cerebrocortical and hippocampal neurons. Anesthesiology. 1999 Apr; 90(4):1137-45.
Buck L, Espanol M, Litt L, Bickler P. Reversible decreases in ATP and PCr concentrations in anoxic turtle brain. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1998 Aug; 120(4):633-9.
Bickler PE. Reduction of NMDA receptor activity in cerebrocortex of turtles (Chrysemys picta) during 6 wk of anoxia. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 2):R86-91.
Bickler PE, Buck LT. Adaptations of vertebrate neurons to hypoxia and anoxia: maintaining critical Ca2+ concentrations. J Exp Biol. 1998 Apr; 201(Pt 8):1141-52.
Bickler PE, Hansen BM. Hypoxia-tolerant neonatal CA1 neurons: relationship of survival to evoked glutamate release and glutamate receptor-mediated calcium changes in hippocampal slices. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1998 Mar 12; 106(1-2):57-69.
Hampson AJ, Bornheim LM, Scanziani M, Yost CS, Gray AT, Hansen BM, Leonoudakis DJ, Bickler PE. Dual effects of anandamide on NMDA receptor-mediated responses and neurotransmission. J Neurochem. 1998 Feb; 70(2):671-6.
Buck LT, Bickler PE. Adenosine and anoxia reduce N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor open probability in turtle cerebrocortex. J Exp Biol. 1998 Jan; 201(Pt 2):289-97.
Eilers H, Schaeffer E, Bickler PE, Forsayeth JR. Functional deactivation of the major neuronal nicotinic receptor caused by nicotine and a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Dec; 52(6):1105-12.
Gray AT, Buck LT, Feiner JR, Bickler PE. Interactive effects of pH and temperature on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in rat cortical brain slices. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 1997 Apr; 9(2):180-7.
Bickler PE, Buck LT. Effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate on glutamate release and ATP loss from rat brain slices during hypoxia. J Neurochem. 1996 Oct; 67(4):1463-8.
Eilers H, Bickler PE. Hypothermia and isoflurane similarly inhibit glutamate release evoked by chemical anoxia in rat cortical brain slices. Anesthesiology. 1996 Sep; 85(3):600-7.
Talke P, Bickler PE. Effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxia-evoked glutamate release and glutamate receptor activity in hippocampal slices. Anesthesiology. 1996 Sep; 85(3):551-7.
Eldridge MW, Podolsky A, Richardson RS, Johnson DH, Knight DR, Johnson EC, Hopkins SR, Michimata H, Grassi B, Feiner J, Kurdak SS, Bickler PE, Wagner PD, Severinghaus JW. Pulmonary hemodynamic response to exercise in subjects with prior high-altitude pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Aug; 81(2):911-21.
Podolsky A, Eldridge MW, Richardson RS, Knight DR, Johnson EC, Hopkins SR, Johnson DH, Michimata H, Grassi B, Feiner J, Kurdak SS, Bickler PE, Severinghaus JW, Wagner PD. Exercise-induced VA/Q inequality in subjects with prior high-altitude pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Aug; 81(2):922-32.
Bickler PE, Hansen BM. Alpha 2-adrenergic agonists reduce glutamate release and glutamate receptor-mediated calcium changes in hippocampal slices during hypoxia. Neuropharmacology. 1996 Jun; 35(6):679-87.
Bickler PE, Buck LT, Feiner JR. Volatile and intravenous anesthetics decrease glutamate release from cortical brain slices during anoxia. Anesthesiology. 1995 Dec; 83(6):1233-40.
Buck LT, Bickler PE. Role of adenosine in NMDA receptor modulation in the cerebral cortex of an anoxia-tolerant turtle (Chrysemys picta belli). J Exp Biol. 1995 Jul; 198(Pt 7):1621-8.
Feiner JR, Bickler PE, Severinghaus JW. Hypoxic ventilatory response predicts the extent of maximal breath-holds in man. Respir Physiol. 1995 Jun; 100(3):213-22.
Bickler PE, Hansen BM. Causes of calcium accumulation in rat cortical brain slices during hypoxia and ischemia: role of ion channels and membrane damage. Brain Res. 1994 Dec 5; 665(2):269-76.
Bickler PE, Buck LT, Hansen BM. Effects of isoflurane and hypothermia on glutamate receptor-mediated calcium influx in brain slices. Anesthesiology. 1994 Dec; 81(6):1461-9.
Sato M, Severinghaus JW, Bickler P. Time course of augmentation and depression of hypoxic ventilatory responses at altitude. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994 Jul; 77(1):313-6.
Cardone C, Szenohradszky J, Yost S, Bickler PE. Activation of brain acetylcholine receptors by neuromuscular blocking drugs. A possible mechanism of neurotoxicity. Anesthesiology. 1994 May; 80(5):1155-61; discussion 29A.
O'Donnell BR, Bickler PE. Influence of pH on calcium influx during hypoxia in rat cortical brain slices. Stroke. 1994 Jan; 25(1):171-7.
Bickler PE, Gallego SM, Hansen BM. Developmental changes in intracellular calcium regulation in rat cerebral cortex during hypoxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Sep; 13(5):811-9.
Bickler PE, Gallego SM. Inhibition of brain calcium channels by plasma proteins from anoxic turtles. Am J Physiol. 1993 Aug; 265(2 Pt 2):R277-81.
Szenohradszky J, Trevor AJ, Bickler P, Caldwell JE, Sharma ML, Rampil IJ, Miller RD. Central nervous system effects of intrathecal muscle relaxants in rats. Anesth Analg. 1993 Jun; 76(6):1304-9.
Bickler PE. Cerebral anoxia tolerance in turtles: regulation of intracellular calcium and pH. Am J Physiol. 1992 Dec; 263(6 Pt 2):R1298-302.
Bickler PE, Kelleher JA. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate stabilizes brain intracellular calcium during hypoxia in rats. Stroke. 1992 Nov; 23(11):1617-22.
Bickler PE, Julian D. Regional cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation during hypocarbia in geese. Am J Physiol. 1992 Aug; 263(2 Pt 2):R221-5.
Bickler PE, Sohn YJ. Mass spectrometers and infrared gas analyzers interpret bronchodilator propellants as anesthetic gases. Anesth Analg. 1992 Jul; 75(1):142-3.
Bickler PE. Effects of temperature and anoxia on regional cerebral blood flow in turtles. Am J Physiol. 1992 Mar; 262(3 Pt 2):R538-41.
Miller AC, Bickler P. The laryngeal mask airway. An unusual complication. Anaesthesia. 1991 Aug; 46(8):659-60.
Bissonnette B, Bickler PE, Gregory GA, Severinghaus JW. Intracranial pressure and brain redox balance in rabbits. Can J Anaesth. 1991 Jul; 38(5):654-9.
Bickler P, Spears R, McKay W. Intralipid solution mistakenly infused into epidural space. Anesth Analg. 1990 Dec; 71(6):712-3.
Bickler PE, Sessler DI. Efficiency of airway heat and moisture exchangers in anesthetized humans. Anesth Analg. 1990 Oct; 71(4):415-8.
Bickler PE, Schapera A, Bainton CR. Acute radial nerve injury from use of an automatic blood pressure monitor. Anesthesiology. 1990 Jul; 73(1):186-8.
Bickler PE, Gold B, Johnson BH. Diffusion of felt-tip marker pen ink into intravenous bags. Anesth Analg. 1989 Sep; 69(3):412.
Bickler PE, Koh SO, Severinghaus JW. Effects of hypoxia and hypocapnia on brain redox balance in ducks. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jul; 257(1 Pt 2):R132-5.
Bickler PE, Litt L, Severinghaus JW. Effects of acetazolamide on cerebrocortical NADH and blood volume. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Jul; 65(1):428-33.
Bickler PE, Litt L, Banville DL, Severinghaus JW. Effects of acetazolamide on cerebral acid-base balance. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Jul; 65(1):422-7.
Bickler PE, Dueck R, Prutow RJ. Effects of barbiturate anesthesia on functional residual capacity and ribcage/diaphragm contributions to ventilation. Anesthesiology. 1987 Feb; 66(2):147-52.
Weinstein Y, Bernstein MH, Bickler PE, Gonzales DV, Samaniego FC, Escobedo MA. Blood respiratory properties in pigeons at high altitudes: effects of acclimation. Am J Physiol. 1985 Dec; 249(6 Pt 2):R765-75.
Bickler PE. Blood acid-base status of an awake heterothermic rodent, Spermophilus tereticaudus. Respir Physiol. 1984 Sep; 57(3):307-16.
Bickler PE. CO2 balance of a heterothermic rodent: comparison of sleep, torpor, and awake states. Am J Physiol. 1984 Jan; 246(1 Pt 2):R49-55.