Pedro Gambus Cerrillo, MD

Associate Adjunct Professor


MD School of Medicine of the Universidad de Barcelona (Spain). Specialty training in Anesthesiology in Hospital General de Granollers (Barcelona).

Postdoctoral fellowship in "Clinical Pharmacology in Anesthesia: PKPD Modelling of i.v. Anesthetics" (Prof S.L. Shafer, D.R. Stanski) Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine. Jan 1993-June 1995.

PhD degree School of Medicine of the Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); "Applications of EEG as a measure of depth of anesthetic drug effects"

Currently work at the Department of Anesthesia, Hospital CLINIC de Barcelona (Spain)

Principal investigator: Research group on Modeling and Control of Anesthetic Drug Effects (Hospital CLINIC):

1) Applications of PKPD modelling in sedation-analgesia for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures: TCI systems
2) Optimal control of sedation analgesia drug effects: EEG, AEP, Respiratory function, signal analysis
3) Mathematical modeling: nonlinear mixed effects modeling, fuzzy logic modeling methods (ANFIS)

Public funding from the Clinical Research Agency (Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias [FIS]), Government of Spain.
Private funding from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena (Spain)

González C, Jensen EW, Gambús PL, Vallverdú M. Poincaré plot analysis of cerebral blood flow signals: Feature extraction and classification methods for apnea detection. PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208642.
Vide S, Gambús PL. Tools to screen and measure cognitive impairment after surgery and anesthesia. Presse Med. 2018 Apr; 47(4 Pt 2):e65-e72.
Borrat X, Ubre M, Risco R, Gambús PL, Pedroso A, Iglesias A, Fernandez-Esparrach G, Ginés À, Balust J, Martínez-Palli G. Computerized tests to evaluate recovery of cognitive function after deep sedation with propofol and remifentanil for colonoscopy. J Clin Monit Comput. 2019 Feb; 33(1):107-113.
Gambus P, Shafer SL. Artificial Intelligence for Everyone. Anesthesiology. 2018 Mar; 128(3):431-433.
Muñoz JE, Gambús P, Jensen EW, Vallverdú M. Time-frequency Features for Impedance Cardiography Signals During Anesthesia Using Different Distribution Kernels. Methods Inf Med. 2018 01; 57(1):e1-e9.
Vide S, Costa CM, Gambus PL, Amorim PP. Effects of Ketamine on Pupillary Reflex Dilation: A Case Report. A A Pract. 2018 Jan 15; 10(2):39-41.
Rocha C, Mendonça T, Silva ME, Gambús P. Erratum to: Individualizing propofol dosage: a multivariate linear model approach. J Clin Monit Comput. 2017 02; 31(1):239.
Lopez AM, Agusti M, Gambus P, Pons M, Anglada T, Valero R. A randomized comparison of the Ambu AuraGain versus the LMA supreme in patients undergoing gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. J Clin Monit Comput. 2017 Dec; 31(6):1255-1262.
Bosch L, Fernández-Candil J, León A, Gambús PL. Influence of general anaesthesia on the brainstem. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2017 Mar; 64(3):157-167.
Melia U, Gabarron E, Agustí M, Souto N, Pineda P, Fontanet J, Vallverdu M, Jensen EW, Gambus P. Comparison of the qCON and qNOX indices for the assessment of unconsciousness level and noxious stimulation response during surgery. J Clin Monit Comput. 2017 Dec; 31(6):1273-1281.
Bolanos JD, Vallverdu M, Caminal P, Valencia DF, Borrat X, Gambus PL, Valencia JF. Assessment of sedation-analgesia by means of Poincaré analysis of the electroencephalogram. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 08; 2016:6425-6428.
Hannam JA, Borrat X, Trocóniz IF, Valencia JF, Jensen EW, Pedroso A, Muñoz J, Castellví-Bel S, Castells A, Gambús PL. Modeling Respiratory Depression Induced by Remifentanil and Propofol during Sedation and Analgesia Using a Continuous Noninvasive Measurement of pCO2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016 Mar; 356(3):563-73.
Gambús PL, Trocóniz IF, Feng X, Gimenez-Milá M, Mellado R, Degos V, Vacas S, Maze M. Relation between acute and long-term cognitive decline after surgery: Influence of metabolic syndrome. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Nov; 50:203-208.
Borrat X, Valencia JF, Magrans R, Gimenez-Mila M, Mellado R, Sendino O, Perez M, Nunez M, Jospin M, Jensen EW, Troconiz I, Gambus PL. Sedation-analgesia with propofol and remifentanil: concentrations required to avoid gag reflex in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jul; 121(1):90-6.
Melia U, Vallverdú M, Borrat X, Valencia JF, Jospin M, Jensen EW, Gambus P, Caminal P. Prediction of Nociceptive Responses during Sedation by Linear and Non-Linear Measures of EEG Signals in High Frequencies. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123464.
Gambús PL, Trocóniz IF. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling in anaesthesia. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Jan; 79(1):72-84.
Jensen EW, Valencia JF, López A, Anglada T, Agustí M, Ramos Y, Serra R, Jospin M, Pineda P, Gambus P. Monitoring hypnotic effect and nociception with two EEG-derived indices, qCON and qNOX, during general anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014 Sep; 58(8):933-41.
Melia U, Vallverdu M, Jospin M, Valencia JF, Jensen EW, Gambus PL, Perera Lluna A, Caminal P. Interaction between EEG and drug concentration to predict response to noxious stimulation during sedation-analgesia: effect of the A118G genetic polymorphism. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014; 2014:4298-301.
Rocha C, Mendonça T, Silva ME, Gambús P. Individualizing propofol dosage: a multivariate linear model approach. J Clin Monit Comput. 2014 12; 28(6):525-36.
Borrat X, Trocóniz IF, Valencia JF, Rivadulla S, Sendino O, Llach J, Muñoz J, Castellví-Bel S, Jospin M, Jensen EW, Castells A, Gambús PL. Modeling the influence of the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene and of noxious stimulation on the synergistic relation between propofol and remifentanil: sedation and analgesia in endoscopic procedures. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jun; 118(6):1395-407.
Melia U, Vallverdú M, Jospin M, Jensen EW, Valencia JF, Clariá F, Gambus PL, Caminal P. Prediction of nociceptive responses during sedation by time-frequency representation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013; 2013:2547-50.
Faulí A, Anglada MT, Gomar C, Sala X, López A, Pons M, Gambús P, Fábregas N. [Comparison of 3 combinations of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 1% mepivacaine in popliteal sciatic block in hallux valgus outpatient surgery]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2012 Dec; 59(10):549-55.
Jospin M, Aguilar JP, Gambus PL, Jensen EW, Vallverdu M, Caminal P. Validation of the qCO cardiac output monitor during Valsalva maneuver. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:240-3.
Cortínez LI, Gambús P, Trocóniz IF, Echevarría G, Muñoz HR. Obesity does not influence the onset and offset of sevoflurane effect as measured by the hysteresis between sevoflurane concentration and bispectral index. Anesth Analg. 2011 Jul; 113(1):70-6.
López AM, Valero R, Hurtado P, Gambús P, Pons M, Anglada T. Comparison of the LMA Supreme™ with the LMA Proseal™ for airway management in patients anaesthetized in prone position. Br J Anaesth. 2011 Aug; 107(2):265-71.
Gambús PL, Jensen EW, Jospin M, Borrat X, Martínez Pallí G, Fernández-Candil J, Valencia JF, Barba X, Caminal P, Trocóniz IF. Modeling the effect of propofol and remifentanil combinations for sedation-analgesia in endoscopic procedures using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Anesth Analg. 2011 Feb; 112(2):331-9.
Fernández-Candil J, Gambús PL, Trocóniz IF, Valero R, Carrero E, Fábregas N. Feasibility of microdialysis to determine interstitial rocuronium concentration in the muscle tissue of anesthetized neurosurgical patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010 Apr; 22(2):163-9.
Cortínez LI, Trocóniz IF, Fuentes R, Gambús P, Hsu YW, Altermatt F, Muñoz HR. The influence of age on the dynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations and bispectral index. Anesth Analg. 2008 Nov; 107(5):1566-72.
Fernández-Candil J, Gambús PL, Trocóniz IF, Valero R, Carrero E, Bueno L, Fábregas N. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the influence of chronic phenytoin therapy on the rocuronium bromide response in patients undergoing brain surgery. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug; 64(8):795-806.
Jensen EW, Jospin M, Gambus PL, Vallverdu M, Caminal P. Validation of the Index of Consciousness (IoC) during sedation/analgesia for ultrasonographic endoscopy. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:5552-5.
Gambús PL, Stanski DR. Lessons learned in drug development from anesthesia. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2005 Jun-Jul; 52(6):311-4.
Fàbregas N, Gambús PL, Valero R, Carrero EJ, Salvador L, Zavala E, Ferrer E. Can bispectral index monitoring predict recovery of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury? Anesthesiology. 2004 Jul; 101(1):43-51.
Parramon F, García Ch, Gambús P, Vilaplana J, Aragonés N, Villalonga A. [Postoperative patient-controlled analgesia is more effective with epidural methadone than with intravenous methadone in thoracic surgery]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2003 Aug-Sep; 50(7):326-31.
Fábregas N, Rapado J, Gambús PL, Valero R, Carrero E, Salvador L, Nalda-Felipe MA, Trocóniz IF. Modeling of the sedative and airway obstruction effects of propofol in patients with Parkinson disease undergoing stereotactic surgery. Anesthesiology. 2002 Dec; 97(6):1378-86.
Barbanoj MJ, Valle M, Kulisevsky J, Pérez V, Gambús P. Uses of pharmaco-EEG and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling in the clinical scenario. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2002; 24 Suppl D:139-44.
Barr J, Egan TD, Sandoval NF, Zomorodi K, Cohane C, Gambus PL, Shafer SL. Propofol dosing regimens for ICU sedation based upon an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Anesthesiology. 2001 Aug; 95(2):324-33.
Fàbregas N, Gambús P, Trocóniz I, Valero R, Guix E, Zavala E. [Use of the electroencephalographic spectral edge frequency 90 to monitor sedation of chronically ill patients]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2001 Aug-Sep; 48(7):314-20.
Gambús P. [Anesthetic status monitoring: reality or pending matter?]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Dec; 46(10):425-6.
Schnider TW, Minto CF, Shafer SL, Gambus PL, Andresen C, Goodale DB, Youngs EJ. The influence of age on propofol pharmacodynamics. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jun; 90(6):1502-16.
Gambús PL, Schnider TW, Minto CF. [Characterization of dose profile of remifentanil with computer simulation: comparative study with fentanyl and alfentanyl]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1998 Oct; 45(8):317-25.
Gambús PL, Schnider TW, Minto CF, Youngs EJ, Billard V, Brose WG, Hochhaus G, Shafer SL. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous dynorphin A(1-13) in opioid-naive and opioid-treated human volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jul; 64(1):27-38.
Schnider TW, Minto CF, Gambus PL, Andresen C, Goodale DB, Shafer SL, Youngs EJ. The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers. Anesthesiology. 1998 May; 88(5):1170-82.
Müller S, Ho B, Gambus P, Millard W, Hochhaus G. An HPLC/RIA method for dynorphin A1-13 and its main metabolites in human blood. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997 Sep; 16(1):101-9.
Billard V, Gambus PL, Chamoun N, Stanski DR, Shafer SL. A comparison of spectral edge, delta power, and bispectral index as EEG measures of alfentanil, propofol, and midazolam drug effect. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Jan; 61(1):45-58.
Minto CF, Schnider TW, Egan TD, Youngs E, Lemmens HJ, Gambus PL, Billard V, Hoke JF, Moore KH, Hermann DJ, Muir KT, Mandema JW, Shafer SL. Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development. Anesthesiology. 1997 Jan; 86(1):10-23.
Shafer SL, Gambús PL. Inhalation versus intravenous anesthesia: a fictitious debate between E.I. Eger II and P.F. White. J Clin Anesth. 1996 May; 8(3 Suppl):38S-41S.
Gambús PL. Structural modeling: simultaneous pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1996; 18 Suppl C:47-8.
Billard V, Gambus PL, Barr J, Minto CF, Corash L, Tessman JW, Stickney JL, Shafer SL. The pharmacokinetics of 8-methoxypsoralen following i.v. administration in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Oct; 40(4):347-60.
Gambús PL, Gregg KM, Shafer SL. Validation of the alfentanil canonical univariate parameter as a measure of opioid effect on the electroencephalogram. Anesthesiology. 1995 Oct; 83(4):747-56.
Salvador L, Fita G, Gomar C, Gambús P, Nalda MA. [Effects of premedication in children with congenital cardiopathy]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1993 Nov-Dec; 40(6):340-3.
Gambús PL, Fita G, Jiménez MJ, Gomar C, Lapena CL, Nalda MA. [Cryoanalgesia in post-thoracotomy pain]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1992 Nov-Dec; 39(6):390.
Vila M, Gaitán ME, Gambús P, Sentís M, Arén JJ. [Transient pneumothorax caused by carbon dioxide following laparoscopy]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1992 May-Jun; 39(3):192.