Liz Whitlock Whitlock, MD, MS

Asst Professor in Residence
Biography: 

My research centers on understanding cognitive change over time in older adults, particularly as it relates to surgery and anesthesia, using population-based data sources. I am also interested in potentially modifiable risk factors for adverse anesthesia-related outcomes, including myocardial and cerebral ischemia, perioperative mortality, and postoperative delirium.

Publications: 
Whitlock EL. Yes, no, maybe: Replication and the importance of methodology. Eur J Pain. 2021 Jul 03.
Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Boscardin WJ, Covinsky KE, Avidan MS, Glymour MM. Association of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting vs Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Memory Decline in Older Adults Undergoing Coronary Revascularization. JAMA. 2021 05 18; 325(19):1955-1964.
Mathis MR, Schonberger RB, Whitlock EL, Vogt KM, Lagorio JE, Jones KA, Conroy JM, Kheterpal S. Opportunities Beyond the Anesthesiology Department: Broader Impact Through Broader Thinking. Anesth Analg. 2021 Mar 08.
Jung MJ, Libaw JS, Ma K, Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Sinskey JL. Pediatric Distraction on Induction of Anesthesia With Virtual Reality and Perioperative Anxiolysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg. 2021 03 01; 132(3):798-806.
Donovan AL, Braehler MR, Robinowitz DL, Lazar AA, Finlayson E, Rogers S, Douglas VC, Whitlock EL, Anesthesia Resident Quality Improvement Committee . An Implementation-Effectiveness Study of a Perioperative Delirium Prevention Initiative for Older Adults. Anesth Analg. 2020 12; 131(6):1911-1922.
Whitlock EL, Braehler MR, Kaplan JA, Finlayson E, Rogers SE, Douglas V, Donovan AL. Derivation, Validation, Sustained Performance, and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Medical Record-Based Perioperative Delirium Risk Stratification Tool. Anesth Analg. 2020 12; 131(6):1901-1910.
Culley DJ, Kelz MB, Koch CG, Eisenach JC, Neuman MD, Whitlock EL, Robertson RM, Cooper T, Pomerantz P. Creation of the Anesthesia Research Council. Anesth Analg. 2020 10; 131(4):1300-1303.
Curtis MS, Forman NA, Donovan AL, Whitlock EL. Postoperative delirium: why, what, and how to confront it at your institution. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2020 Oct; 33(5):668-673.
Marsh BJ, Sinskey J, Whitlock EL, Ferschl MB, Rollins MD. Use of Remifentanil for Open in utero Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair Maintains Uterine Relaxation with Reduced Volatile Anesthetic Concentration. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2020; 47(11):810-816.
Whitlock EL, Liu X, Lin HM, Deiner S. Implications of postoperative cognitive decline for satisfaction with anaesthesia care. Br J Anaesth. 2020 09; 125(3):e273-e275.
Whitlock EL, Whittington RA. The Frailty Syndrome: Anesthesiologists Must Understand More and Fear Less. Anesth Analg. 2020 06; 130(6):1445-1448.
Whitlock EL, Grisell Diaz-Ramirez L, Avidan MS. Surgery and persistent cognitive decline: a commentary and an independent discussion. Br J Anaesth. 2020 03; 124(3):229-234.
Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. Three blind mice: a tail of discordant trials. Br J Anaesth. 2020 02; 124(2):121-125.
Whitlock EL, Whittington RA. Aging Gracefully: The Evolution of Perioperative Care for Older Adults. Anesthesiol Clin. 2019 Sep; 37(3):xv-xvi.
Donovan AL, Whitlock EL. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine to prevent postoperative delirium: in search of the magic bullet. Can J Anaesth. 2019 04; 66(4):365-370.
Whitlock EL, Sleigh J. Are we overdosing older patients? Br J Anaesth. 2019 09; 123(3):257-258.
Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Boscardin WJ, Avidan MS, Glymour MM. Cognitive Change After Cardiac Surgery Versus Cardiac Catheterization: A Population-Based Study. Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 04; 107(4):1119-1125.
Whitlock EL, Finlayson E. Depth of Propofol Sedation and Postoperative Delirium: The Jury Is Still Out. JAMA Surg. 2018 11 01; 153(11):996.
Aranake-Chrisinger A, Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. We may be Homo sapiens, but anaesthetists are merely apes when evaluating risk. Br J Anaesth. 2018 Oct; 121(4):702-705.
Bartels DD, McCann ME, Davidson AJ, Polaner DM, Whitlock EL, Bateman BT. Estimating pediatric general anesthesia exposure: Quantifying duration and risk. Paediatr Anaesth. 2018 06; 28(6):520-527.
Chiu C, Aleshi P, Esserman LJ, Inglis-Arkell C, Yap E, Whitlock EL, Harbell MW. Improved analgesia and reduced post-operative nausea and vomiting after implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway for total mastectomy. BMC Anesthesiol. 2018 04 16; 18(1):41.
Adelmann D, Bicknell L, Niemann CU, Feiner J, Roll GR, Burdine L, Whitlock EL. Central venous pressure monitoring in living donor kidney recipients does not affect immediate graft function: A propensity score analysis. Clin Transplant. 2018 05; 32(5):e13238.
Whitlock EL, Lane RK. Do Not Resuscitate and the Surgical Patient: Not a Contradiction in Terms. Anesth Analg. 2017 11; 125(5):1438-1440.
Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Glymour MM, Boscardin WJ, Covinsky KE, Smith AK. Association Between Persistent Pain and Memory Decline and Dementia in a Longitudinal Cohort of Elders. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 08 01; 177(8):1146-1153.
Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Chen LL. In Reply. Anesthesiology. 2016 06; 124(6):1419.
Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Chen LL. Perioperative Mortality, 2010 to 2014: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. Anesthesiology. 2015 Dec; 123(6):1312-21.
Whitlock EL. Importance of "default" intraoperative ventilator settings. BMJ. 2015 Sep 30; 351:h5125.
Whitlock EL, Kim H, Auerbach AD. Harms associated with single unit perioperative transfusion: retrospective population based analysis. BMJ. 2015 Jun 12; 350:h3037.
Elizabeth L. Whitlock, Matthias Behrends. Blood Transfusion and Postoperative Delirium. Current Anesthesiology Reports. 2015 Mar 1; 5(1):24-32.
Whitlock EL, Rodebaugh TL, Hassett AL, Shanks AM, Kolarik E, Houghtby J, West HM, Burnside BA, Shumaker E, Villafranca A, Edwards WA, Levinson CA, Langer JK, Fernandez KC, El-Gabalawy R, Zhou EY, Sareen J, Jacobsohn E, Mashour GA, Avidan MS. Psychological sequelae of surgery in a prospective cohort of patients from three intraoperative awareness prevention trials. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jan; 120(1):87-95.
Whitlock EL, Behrends M. Blood Transfusion and Postoperative Delirium. Current Anesthesiology Reports. 2014.
Whitlock EL, Torres BA, Lin N, Helsten DL, Nadelson MR, Mashour GA, Avidan MS. Postoperative delirium in a substudy of cardiothoracic surgical patients in the BAG-RECALL clinical trial. Anesth Analg. 2014 Apr; 118(4):809-17.
Elizabeth L. Whitlock, Michael S. Avidan, Sharon K. Inouye. Delirium. Neurologic Outcomes of Surgery and Anesthesia. 2013 May 1; 13-20.
Elliott Karren, Elizabeth L. Whitlock, Thomas L. Rodebaugh, Michael S. Avidan. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Surgery, Intensive Care, and Intraoperative Awareness. Neurologic Outcomes of Surgery and Anesthesia. 2013 May 1; 47-56.
Kertai MD, Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. Brain monitoring with electroencephalography and the electroencephalogram-derived bispectral index during cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2012 Mar; 114(3):533-46.
Whitlock EL, Villafranca AJ, Lin N, Palanca BJ, Jacobsohn E, Finkel KJ, Zhang L, Burnside BA, Kaiser HA, Evers AS, Avidan MS. Relationship between bispectral index values and volatile anesthetic concentrations during the maintenance phase of anesthesia in the B-Unaware trial. Anesthesiology. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1209-18.
Whitlock EL, Vannucci A, Avidan MS. Postoperative delirium. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011 Apr; 77(4):448-56.
Whitlock EL, Myckatyn TM, Tong AY, Yee A, Yan Y, Magill CK, Johnson PJ, Mackinnon SE. Dynamic quantification of host Schwann cell migration into peripheral nerve allografts. Exp Neurol. 2010 Oct; 225(2):310-9.
Whitlock EL, Brenner MJ, Fox IK, Moradzadeh A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. Ropivacaine-induced peripheral nerve injection injury in the rodent model. Anesth Analg. 2010 Jul; 111(1):214-20.
Arash Moradzadeh, Michael J. Brenner, Elizabeth L. Whitlock, Alice Y. Tong, Janina P. Luciano, Daniel A. Hunter, Terence M. Myckatyn, Susan E. Mackinnon. Bipolar Electrocautery. JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery. 2010 Jan 1; 12(1):40-47.
Moradzadeh A, Brenner MJ, Whitlock EL, Tong AY, Luciano JP, Hunter DA, Myckatyn TM, Mackinnon SE. Bipolar electrocautery: A rodent model of Sunderland third-degree nerve injury. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010 Jan-Feb; 12(1):40-7.
Whitlock EL, Kasukurthi R, Yan Y, Tung TH, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. Fibrin glue mitigates the learning curve of microneurosurgical repair. Microsurgery. 2010; 30(3):218-22.
Whitlock EL, Tuffaha SH, Luciano JP, Yan Y, Hunter DA, Magill CK, Moore AM, Tong AY, Mackinnon SE, Borschel GH. Processed allografts and type I collagen conduits for repair of peripheral nerve gaps. Muscle Nerve. 2009 Jun; 39(6):787-99.
Moradzadeh A, Borschel GH, Luciano JP, Whitlock EL, Hayashi A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. The impact of motor and sensory nerve architecture on nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol. 2008 Aug; 212(2):370-6.
Whitlock EL, Moradzadeh A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. Pregabalin does not impact peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injury. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007 Jul; 23(5):263-8.
Hunter DA, Moradzadeh A, Whitlock EL, Brenner MJ, Myckatyn TM, Wei CH, Tung TH, Mackinnon SE. Binary imaging analysis for comprehensive quantitative histomorphometry of peripheral nerve. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Oct 15; 166(1):116-24.
Sadava D, Whitlock E, Kane SE. The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits telomerase and induces apoptosis in drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17; 360(1):233-7.
Whitlock EL, Bridwell KH, Gilula LA. Influence of needle tip position on injectate spread in 406 interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections. Radiology. 2007 Jun; 243(3):804-11.